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Operating Systems


The kernel is the essential foundation of a computer's operating system (OS). It is the core that provides basic services for all other parts of the OS. It is the main layer between the OS and underlying computer hardware, and it helps with tasks such as process and memory management, file systems, device control and networking.​​​

Operating Systems | Debian 

Debian had a long history. Founded in 1993 by Ian Murdock, it is one of the early Linux distributions and one that is the basis for many other Linux distributions. 


Debian releases are named for characters from the Toy Story movies. 


  • Debian 1.1 Buzz (June 17th, 1996): Named for the Buzz Lightyear.

  • Debian 1.2 Rex (December 12th, 1996): Named for the plastic dinosaur in the Toy Story movies.

  • Debian 1.3 Bo (June 5th, 1997): Named for Bo Peep, the shepherdess. 

  • Debian 2.0 Hamm (July 24th, 1998): Named for the piggy-bank in the Toy Story movies. 

  • Debian 2.1 Slink (March 9th, 1999): Named for the slinky-dog in the movie. 

  • Debian 2.2 Potato (15 August 2000): Named for "Mr Potato Head" in the Toy Story movies. 

  • Debian 3.0 Woody (19 July 2002): Named for the main character the Toy Story movies: "Woody" the cowboy. 

  • Debian 3.1 Sarge (6 June 2005): Named for the sergeant of the Green Plastic Army Men.

  • Debian 4.0 Etch (8 April 2007): Named for the sketch toy in the movie. 

  • Debian 5.0 Lenny (February 2009): Named for the wind up binoculars in the Toy Story movies. 

  • Debian 6.0 Squeeze (February 2011): Named for the green three-eyed aliens.

  • Debian 7.0 Wheezy (May 2013): Named for the rubber toy penguin with a red bow tie.

  • Debian 8 Jessie (April 2015): Named for the cow girl doll who first appeared in Toy Story 2.

  • Debian 9 Stretch (June 2017): Named for the toy rubber octopus with suckers on her eight long arms that appeared in Toy Story 3.

  • Debian 10 Buster (July 2019): Named for Andy's pet dog, received as Christmas present in the end of Toy Story.

  • Debian 11 Bullseye (August 14th, 2021): Named for Woody's wooden toyhorse that appeared in Toy Story 2.

Change Mode (chmod) | UNIX/Linux



The chmod, or change mode, command allows an administrator to set or modify a file’s permissions. Every UNIX/Linux file has an owner user and an owner group attached to it, and every file has permissions associated with it.


The permissions are as follows: Read, Write, or Execute.


UNIX/Linux systems have many users. In this context, a user may refer to an individual or a system operation. UNIX/Linux identifies each user with a UID, and users may be organized into groups.


The syntax of the chmod command is: 

  • chmod <mode/access-code> <file>

    • Example: chmod 720 readme.txt

Each number in the mode parameter represents the permissions for a user or group of users:

  • The first number represents the file’s owner

  • The second number represents the file’s group

  • The third number represents everyone else


The Change Mode (chmod) Parameters Reference Table below shows the eight numbers that can be used within the chmod parameter.


The RWX specifies Read, Write, and Execute access, offering a binary value for each operation.

  • 1 = "Yes"

  • 0 = "No"


If RWX reads 110, then that permission may Read and Write, but not Execute.

Parameters Reference

Number 0 | None | RWX 000

Number 1 | Execute Only | RWX 001

Number 2 | Write Only | RWX 010

Number 3 | Write and Execute | RWX 011

Number 4 | Read Only | RWX 100

Number 5 | Read and Execute | RWX 101

Number 6 | Read and Write | RWX 110

Number 7 | Read, Write, and Execute | RWX 111

Example 1

  • Access Code = 720

    • 7 = File’s owner may Read, Write and Execute the file

    • 2 = File’s group may only Write the file

    • 0 = All others cannot access the file

Example 2

  • Access Code = 600

    • 6 = File’s owner may Read and Write the file

    • 0 = File’s group cannot access the file

    • 0 = All others cannot access the file​​​

Windows Server 2022 | Roles and Features

Activating WiFi (Wireless LAN Services)


  • Go to Service Manager

  • Add roles and features

  • Role-based or feature-based installation

  • Select the "Server"

  • Select nothing in the "Server Roles"

  • In the features, select "Wireless LAN Services"

  • In the confirmation, click in install

  • Wait until finish

  • Restart the server

If the Wireless LAN Service has not started:

  • Open PowerShell

  • Command: net start WlanSvc​​​​

Windows | CMD Command Prompt

To access the "Command Prompt" you just need search for "CMD'.


  • IPCONFIG - Console application for TCP/IP network configuration

    • IPCONFIG /? - Display the help message with all commands

    • IPCONFIG /ALL -  Display full configuration information (You can see the MAC Addresses)

    • IPCONFIG /RELEASE - Release IPv4 address

    • IPCONFIG /RENEW - Renew IPv4 address


Automount | Automatic Mounting of New Disks and Drives

When you restart your computer and you MicroSD disk is not automatic mounted (showed as a driver), you can activate with these two options.


  1. CMD - Open Command Prompt

  2. DISKPART - Open the Windows Diskpart prompt

    • AUTOMOUNT - Display if the automount is enable or disabled

    • AUTOMOUNT ENABLE - Enable the automount

    • AUTOMOUNT DISABLE - Disable the automount

  3. Restart the computer


Registry Editor Option

  1. Search for "Regedit" and open it

  2. Search for HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\mountmgr

  3. "NoAutoMount" DWORD

  4. "0" Enable

  5. "1" Disable​​​​

Windows Server 2022 | Network

Network profile | Changing Public to Private


  • Open PowerShell

  • Check the network profile by looking at Alias or Index

    • Command: Get-NetConnectionProfile

  • You can change the Profile to Private using Index or Alias

    • Commandusing "InterfaceIndex": Set-NetConnectionProfile -InterfaceIndex 19 -NetworkCategory Private

    • Command using "InterfaceAlias": Set-NetConnectionProfile -InterfaceAlias Ethernet -NetworkCategory Private

  • You can change the Profile to Public using Index or Alias

    • Commandusing "InterfaceIndex": Set-NetConnectionProfile -InterfaceIndex 19 -NetworkCategory Public

    • Command using "InterfaceAlias": Set-NetConnectionProfile -InterfaceAlias Ethernet -NetworkCategory Public

* The variables in bold need to be changed to those of your system

Windows 11 | Create a VHD

Create a Virtual Hard Disk


  • Windows Settings

  • System -> Storage -> Advanced Storage Settings -> Disks & Volumes -> Create VHD

  • Create and Attach Virtual Hard Disk:

    • Name

    • Location

    • Size

    • Format: VHDX

    • Type: Dynamically

  • Click Create

  • Initialise Disk

    • Partition Style: GPT

  • Click Initialise​

  • Format New Volume

    • Label

    • Drive Letter

    • File System: NTFS

  • Click Advance

    • Allocation Unit Size: Default

  • Click Format


What is Linux?

Most people think of Linux as another operating system, just like Windows or Mac OS, that must be installed on a computer, rather than as a Kernel or a family of operating systems. This is an easy explanation, abstract enough to bring some sense and understanding to people.

Linux is basically a Kernel. But in simpler terms, Linux is a technology.


You can make a comparison with cars, like:

To make it clearer, you can comparing operating systems with cars


  • Windows - It is a complete car, with motorcycles, wheels, windows and steering wheel. You use this car to make all your activities, travelling, commuting to work (it is a popular car) and almost everyone that you know has a similar model. Microsoft do that car from the beginning to the end (all components), and Microsoft has an absolute control over all features and how it will looks like. Microsoft will lease that car for you through a license, and from time to time it launches some new models.

  • Mac OS - It is a very similar car, but free. The difference is you can only use the card if you live in a determined city, that Apple controls (Apple's devices). Living in this city can be very expensive, despite the car is free. You can do all your activities with this car in that city, but everytime you try to leave that city with the car, you will face some difficulties.

In both cases, you would be a customer of Microsoft and Apple, driving their cars.

  • Linux - Linux wouldn't be a complete car, but an essential component, like an engine. It can be used to create different types of cars. You don't need to pay for your Linux engine, so you are not a Linux's customer and nobody will tell you what you can do with the engine. If you transform this engine in a motorcycle, that's up to you. With the engine you receives a manual, explaining how it works and how to assemble​ it.​ The Linux engine is assemble for many companies around the world.

But now you are thinking that it's not possible to drive a engine, you need all the other components to make a car. And that where systems based on Linux are born, or distribution (distros). A very common Linux-based operating system is Ubuntu.

Linux was created by "Linus Torvalds", a Finnish developer, in 1991.

Linux | Commands

  • ssh - Secure Shell command in Linux

  • sudo - Command to escalate privileges in Linux

  • ls - The most frequently used command in Linux to list directories

  • pwd - Print working directory command in Linux

  • cd - Linux command to navigate through directories

  • mkdir - Command used to create directories in Linux

  • mv - Move or rename files in Linux

  • cp - Similar usage as mv but for copying files in Linux

  • rm - Delete files or directories

  • touch - Create blank/empty files

  • ln - Create symbolic links (shortcuts) to other files

  • cat - Display file contents on the terminal

  • clear - Clear the terminal display

  • echo - Print any text that follows the command

  • less - Linux command to display paged outputs in the terminal

  • man - Access manual pages for all Linux commands

  • uname - Linux command to get basic information about the OS

  • whoami - Get the active username

  • tar - Command to extract and compress files in Linux

  • grep - Search for a string within an output

  • head - Return the specified number of lines from the top

  • tail - Return the specified number of lines from the bottom

  • diff - Find the difference between two files

  • cmp - Allows you to check if two files are identical

  • comm - Combines the functionality of diff and cmp

  • sort - Linux command to sort the content of a file while outputting

  • export - Export environment variables in Linux

  • zip - Zip files in Linux

  • unzip - Unzip files in Linux

  • service - Linux command to start and stop services

  • ps - Display active processes

  • kill and killall - Kill active processes by process ID or name

  • df - Display disk filesystem information

  • mount - Mount file systems in Linux

  • chmod - Command to change file permissions

  • chown - Command for granting ownership of files or folders

  • ifconfig - Display network interfaces and IP addresses

  • traceroute - Trace all the network hops to reach the destination

  • wget - Direct download files from the internet

  • ufw - Firewall command

  • iptables - Base firewall for all other firewall utilities to interface with

  • apt, pacman, yum, rpm - Package managers depending on the distro

  • cal - View a command-line calendar

  • alias - Create custom shortcuts for your regularly used commands

  • dd - Majorly used for creating bootable USB sticks

  • whereis - Locate the binary, source, and manual pages for a command

  • whatis - Find what a command is used for

  • top - View active processes live with their system usage

  • useradd and usermod - Add new user or change existing users data

  • passwd - Create or update passwords for existing users

ar -xvf <tar-filename>.tar
Unpack a tar file
tar -cvf <tar-filename>.tar <dirname>
Pack a directory into a tar file
unzip <zip-filename>
Unzip a file
zip <zip-filename> <file1> <file2> <fileX>
Zip a file
df -alh
Show free disk spaces for each block device
du -h ./*
Display the disk usage of files under the current directory
Show block devices
chmod <access-code> <filename>
Change file access.
File Access
chmod 720 readme.txt
Example of mode "(Access-code): 720, 600. Check the article about chmod
chown <owner>[:<group>] <filename>
Change file owner
File Access
cat <filename>
Print file content
File Content
grep -e <regex-pattern> <filename>
Search regex pattern in file
File Content
grep <text> <filename>
Search texts in file
File Content
head -n <line-count> <filename>
Show first few lines in file
File Content
tail -f <filename>
Follow file changes
File Content
tail -n <line-count> <filename>
Show last few lines in file
File Content
Change current directory
File Management
cp -Rf <src-dirname> <dst-dirname>
Copy directory
File Management
cp <src-filename> <dst-filename>
Copy file
File Management
find . -iname <filename-regex>
Find files
File Management
find . -type f
Find all files
File Management
List files in the current directory
File Management
ls -alh
List files in the current directory with details
File Management
Create an empty directory
File Management
mv <src-filename> <dst-filename>
Move file or directory
File Management
Show current directory
File Management
rm -Rf <dirname>
Remove a non-empty directory
File Management
rm <filename>
Remove file
File Management
rmdir <dirname>
Remove an empty directory
File Management
touch <filename>
Create a new empty file
File Management
apk add net-tools
Install netstat
sudo apk add net-tools
Netstat is command-line utility to analyze network and statistics
apt install net-tools
Install netstat
sudo apt install net-tools
Netstat is command-line utility to analyze network and statistics
emerge -a sys-apps/net-tools
Install netstat
sudo emerge -a sys-apps/net-tools
Netstat is command-line utility to analyze network and statistics
netstat -ai
Display Network Interface Statistics
If you don't have the Netstat, you just need install it
netstat -ant
Show Network Connections
If you don't have the Netstat, you just need install it
netstat -nr
Viewing the Network Routing Table
If you don't have the Netstat, you just need install it
netstat -pnltu
Show Network Services
If you don't have the Netstat, you just need install it
netstat -v
Check the version of netstat installed
If you don't have the Netstat, you just need install it
pacman -S net-tools
Install netstat
sudo pacman -S net-tools
Netstat is command-line utility to analyze network and statistics
yum install net-tools
Install netstat
sudo yum install net-tools
Netstat is command-line utility to analyze network and statistics
zypper install net-tools
Install netstat
sudo zypper install net-tools
Netstat is command-line utility to analyze network and statistics
curl <url>
Download data from url
curl <url> -o <filename>
Download data from url to local file
List network configuration
netstat -an
List all ports opened
Ping network connectivity
apt install <package-name>[=<version>]
Install packages
apt-get --purge remove <package-name>
Uninstall packages
apt-get update
Update the apt package index
sudo apt-get update
List all processes in an advanced terminal UI
kill -9 <pid>
Kill a process with SIGKILL (the strongest killing signal)
kill <pid>
Kill a process with SIGTERM
ps aux
List process
List all processes in a terminal UI
systemctl enable <service-name>
Enable a service to start as system starts
Service Management
systemctl list-units
List all units
Service Management
systemctl list-units --type=service
List all service units
Service Management
systemctl restart <service-name>
Restart a service
Service Management
systemctl start <service-name>
Start a service
Service Management
systemctl status <service-name>
Check a service status
Service Management
systemctl stop <service-name>
Stop a service
Service Management
Show hostname
lsb_release -a
Display Linux release information
reboot now
Reboot system now
shutdown -h now
Shutdown system now
Super User privileges to run commands
Temporarily elevate your current user account to have root privileges
uname -a
Display information about your system
adduser <username>
Add a new user
User Management
sudo adduser john001
deluser <username>
Delete a user
User Management
sudo deluser john001

Raspberry PI | Imager

Raspberry Imager

  • Download Raspberry PI Imager

  • Install Raspberry Imager

  • Insert the Micro SSD in the laptop

  • Run the Raspberry Imager

  • Select the Device

  • Select the  Operating System

  • Select the Storage

After the installation is done, you just need to insert the Micro SSD on Raspberry PI and power it.

Storage Drive | Formatting and Allocation

File System

A file system is a framework for organizing files in an operating system or external storage device. It lays out what information can be stored and what filenames, permissions, and other attributes can be attached to the files you save.

Allocation Unit Size

Allocation Unit Size, also known as "Cluster Size" or "Block Size", refers to the size of the chunks that a solid state drive (SSD) or hard disk drive (HDD) is divided into. When you increase the size of the allocation unit, the "chunk," you decrease the total number of allocation units on your drive. If you decrease the size of the allocation unit, the opposite happens, you increase the number of allocation units on the drive.



If you have a disk with:

  • Disk: 16 Mb (or 16,384 Kb)

And format it with:

  • Allocation Unit Size for NTFS: 4069 bytes (or 4 Kb)

You will have this number of clusters:

  • Clusters: 16.384 kb / 4 Kb = 4.096 Clusters (or Units)

If you reformat it to:

  • Allocation Unit Size for NTFS: 32 Kb

You will have this number of clusters:

  • Clusters: 16.384 kb / 32 Kb = 512 Clusters (or Units)

Important: If a file is too big to fit in a single block, then it will be split and span multiple blocks. If a file is smaller than the block size, then it will be stored in that block, but the entire block volume will be used up. This can result in inefficient storage in some extreme cases.

Hint: If you are not sure, sure the "default allocation size"

File Formats

As Microsoft-developed formats, Windows supports:


  • FAT32 (File Allocation Table 32-bit version)

  • exFAT (Extensible File Allocation Table)

  • NTFS (New Technology File System)


They also work on Apple devices, though some of these formats are read-only, meaning you won't be able to save files on a Mac, just look at them.


FAT32, part of the File Allocation Table family of file systems, is the oldest of the three, having been originally created for floppy disk storage. It was introduced in Windows 95, but remains the most common file system today thanks to its usage in memory cards and flash drives.

FAT32 isn’t as efficient as newer systems, but it is compatible with a wide range of new and old devices. Since it’s been around for so long, FAT32 has become the de facto standard for a lot of machines, so much so that many flash drives are still sold with FAT32 formatting by default for maximum compatibility. 

  • Works With: Windows, macOS, Linux, game consoles, just about anything with a USB port

  • Storage Limitations: 4GB file size and 8TB partition size limit. 

  • Best For: Storing small files on removable storage for use with a range of devices

Partition Volume / Allocation Unit Size

  • 32 MB - 64 MB / 0.5 KB (512 Bytes)

  • 64 MB - 128 MB / 1 KB

  • 128 MB - 256 MB / 2 KB

  • 256 MB - 8 GB / 4 KB

  • 8 GB - 16 GB / 8 KB

  • 16 GB - 32 GB /16 KB


The Extended File Allocation Table (exFAT) file system was introduced in 2006, and added to Windows XP and Vista operating systems via a software update. It exists as a middle ground between the older FAT32 and the more modern NTFS formats. 


ExFAT was made to be very portable and optimized for flash drives. It’s lightweight like FAT32, but without the same file size restrictions. That said, it lacks some of the features of the NTFS file system. Overall, it's not as widely compatible as FAT32, but more broadly compatible than NTFS.

  • Works With: All versions of Windows and modern versions of macOS. Older Linux versions need additional software, but any Linux distribution running Linux Kernel 5.7 or newer—like Ubuntu 22.04—has native exFAT support.

  • Storage Limitations: 128 petabyte maximum file size, 128 petabyte maximum partition size. Lacks some of the newer features that come with NTFS.

  • Best For: Storing and writing larger files you need to use on multiple devices.

Partition Volume / Allocation Unit Size

  • 7 MB - 256 MB / 4 KB (4096 Bytes)

  • 256 MB - 32 GB / 8 KB

  • 32 GB - 256 TB / 16 KB


The New Technology File System (NTFS) is Microsoft’s main file system. All recent Windows machines use it by default, and if you install a newer version of Windows on a drive, it will format that drive in NTFS. It differs from FAT32 and exFAT in that it's a journaling file system, meaning it tracks changes before they're written to help with data recovery in the event of a system failure.

  • Works With: All Windows versions. Read-only on Mac and some Linux distributions. Supported on Xbox One, X/S

  • Limitations: Limited cross-platform compatibility.

  • Best For: Internal drives running newer Windows operating systems or removable storage for Windows PCs.

Partition Volume / Allocation Unit Size

  • 7 MB - 16 TB / 4 KB (4096 Bytes)

  • 16 TB - 32 TB / 8 KB

  • 32 TB - 64 TB / 16 KB

  • 64 TB - 128 TB / 32 KB

  • 128 TB - 256 TB / 64 KB

  • 256 TB - 512 TB / 128 KB

  • 512 TB - 1 PB / 265 KB


SSDs and HDDs are both storage devices, but the way they work is quite different. The main difference between a solid state drive (SSD) and a hard disk drive (HDD) is how data is stored and accessed.


Pros and Cons

  • Speed: (SSD) Faster x (HDD) Slower

  • Price: (SSD) More Expensiver x (HDD) Cheaper

  • Hardware: (SSD) Non-mechanical (Flash) x (HDD) Mechanical (Moving parts) 

  • Resistance: (SSD) Shock-Resistant x (HDD) Fragile

  • Purpose : (SSD) Best for storing Operating Systems and Gaming Apps x (HDD) Best for storing extra Data, like Documents, Photos and Movies


Solid-state drives are much faster than hard disk drives, and the speed difference between the two types is significant.

On the paper performance:

  • HDDs: It can copy 30 to 150 MB per second (MB/s)

  • SATA SSDs (Standard): Perform the same action at speeds of 500 MB/s

  • NVMe SSDs (Newer): It can get up to astounding speeds of 3,000 to 3,500 MB/s

Real performance for an average user:


  • Read 3000 MB/s

  • Write 2000 MB/s


  • Read 60 MB/s

  • Write 30 MB/s

Warning: If you are transferring files from an HDD to an SSD (or vice versa), speed will be the bottleneck of the lower speed one (HDD)


These days, the lifetime of an SSD is nearly the same as that of an HDD: around five years on average. A bad device may fail after three years, but a good one can last you ten or more. SSDs used to have shorter lifespans, but SSD technology has improved substantially.

While it’s true that SSD cells can’t be written to as many times as the disk in an HDD, this isn’t really an issue in practice. In theory, if more data is written to a cell, it wears out faster. But thanks to wear leveling, the SSD spreads write operations evenly across all cells to minimize cell death and prolong the lifespan of the drive.

Additionally, modern SSDs contain spare cells that replace dead cells. This is called bad block management, and it’s why the larger the SSD, the longer its lifespan. If you were to write data to an SSD 24/7, it would still take decades for the drive to break down. SSD vs. HDD lifespan is now about equal. But if you’re worried, you can always run a hard drive test to monitor your drive’s health.



Since SSDs don’t contain moving parts, they’re less prone to damage if you drop or bang your computer. This also makes SSDs more reliable in extreme environments and in high or low temperatures. You can typically expect a modern SSD to last at least as long as an HDD.

SDDs fare better than HDDs in laptops because they’re portable; the rough handling of a laptop can more easily damage the intricate moving parts of an HDD.

You can safely run Windows CHKDSK on an SSD so that it avoids the parts that have decayed and died, but never try to defrag an SSD. Defragmenting the drive writes and rewrites data, which can age your SSD faster. If you’re still working with an HDD, it’s good to know how to defrag on Mac or PC.

Security and data recovery

If your drive fails, you can usually recover the data on it. This is true with both HDDs and SSDs, though with a few key differences. Since SSDs are newer, many data recovery services charge more to work with them. But since they’re faster, you might be able to recover your data faster than with an HDD.

SSDs use the TRIM command to destroy data when files are deleted. This is part of how SSDs equalize wear across all cells, but it also makes it harder to recover deleted files. You should keep this in mind when considering SSD or HDD for storage. Data recovery for SSDs is best handled by professionals in a lab with specialized equipment and software.

Whichever type of drive you use, the best way to protect your data is with regular backups to external storage devices or cloud storage. Look up how to clone your hard drive so you have everything handy in case of an emergency. You won’t need to worry about SSD data recovery when you already have a fresh copy.


If you’re concerned about how much information you can store on each type of drive, don’t worry. There are no differences in storage capacity. You can get HDDs and SSDs from as small as 128 GB up to 20 TB or more. However, one of the biggest differences between HDDs and SSDs is the price per gigabyte, so the SSD will be much more expensive.


The market for flash storage is volatile and varies based on supply and demand. While SSDs are much cheaper than they used to be, there is still a significant price difference.


  • 1 TB internal HDD costs roughly $60

  • 1 TB internal SSD averages around $120

Additional Information

  • Energy Consumption: With no mechanical components, SSDs draw less power than their spinning counterparts. That means better battery life, and it’s one reason why most newer laptops come with SSDs. Hard disk drives require more power because they’re constantly in motion.

  • Noise: You’re probably familiar with the sound of an HDD spinning up as it gets to work — 7200 RPMs to be exact — or perhaps the clicking sound that indicates an impending hard drive failure. SSDs, by contrast, don’t have moving parts and are completely silent.

Best For


  • Those looking to back up and store large amounts of data that they don’t need to access frequently

  • People with modest computing needs

  • Those buying or building a PC on a budget



  • Those who use resource-intensive programs like multimedia editing suites

  • Gamers who want to play anything new

  • Anyone who opens and copies files from their drive often

Public Cloud Services Comparison


Cloud services are application and infrastructure resources that exist on the Internet. Third-party providers contract with subscribers for these services, allowing customers to leverage powerful computing resources without having to purchase or maintain hardware and software.

Microsoft Azure
Amazon AWS
Google Cloud
Azure Stream Analytics
Amazon Kinesis
Cloud Dataflow
App Hosting
Azure Cloud Services
Amazon Elastic Beanstalk
Google App Engine
Azure Automation
AWS Opsworks
Compute Engine Management
Block Storage
Azure Managed Storage
Amazon Elastic Block Storage
Persistent Disk
Cloud Agnostic Container
Azure AKS
Amazon EKS
Cloud Specific Container
Azure Container Service
EC2 Container Service
Container Engine
Azure Trust Center
Google Cloud Plataform Security
Virtual Machine
Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
Compute Engine
Content Delivery Network (CDN)
Azure CDN
Amazon CloudFront
Cloud CDN
DNS Services
Azure Traffic Manager
AWS Route 53
Cloud DNS
Identity & Access Management
Azure Active Directory
AWS Identity and Access Management
Cloud Identity Access Management
Key Management Services
Azure Key Vault
Google Cloud KMS
Load Balancing
Load Balancing for Azure
Elastic Load Balancing
Cloud Load Balancing
Log Monitoring
Azure Operational Insights
Amazon CloudTrail
Cloud Logging
NoSQL Database Options
Azure DocumentDB
AWS DynamoDB
Cloud Datastore
Azure Notification Hub
Amazon Simple Notification Service
Object Storage
Azure Blob Storage
Amazon Storage (S3)
Cloud Storage
Performance Monitoring
Azure Application Insights
Amazon CloudWatch
Stackdriver Monitoring
Private Connectivity
Azure Express Route
AWS Direct Connect
Cloud Interconnect
Relational Database
Azure Relational Database
Amazon RDS
Cloud SQL
Scaling Options
Azure Autoscale
Auto Scaling
Auto Scaler
Serverless Computing
Azure Functions
AWS Lambda
Google Cloud Functions
Virtual Network
Azure Virtual Network
Amazon VPC
Cloud Virtual Network

References: Wikipedia (; Google (; Oracle (; Raspberry PI (; Microsoft (; CloudFlare (

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